What is a Battery Charger in a Battery Management System?

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Editorial Team - everything PE

May 17, 2024

Battery Charger

A battery charger in a Battery Management System (BMS) is an essential component that converts AC power into DC power to match the device being powered by the battery. It plays a crucial role in the battery charging process by regulating the charging current, voltage, and power settings to ensure optimal charging. 

Functions of Battery Charger:

  • Convert AC power to DC power to match device requirements
  • Control charge current, voltage, and power settings
  • Protect against abnormal conditions arising due to overcharging or over-discharging of the battery
  • Monitor various parameters like voltage, current, and temperature
  • Implement specific charging algorithms suited to the battery chemistry (e.g., lithium-ion, lead-acid)
  • Maintain a safe operating temperature of the battery pack.

The battery charger ICs used in BMS include features such as charge status indicators, over-voltage protection, and over-current protection to safeguard the battery during the charging process. They are of different types, such as linear chargers and switching chargers, each with its unique method of transferring energy to the battery. Linear chargers provide a fixed voltage output while switching chargers transfer energy in discrete packets using components like inductors or capacitors. These chargers are designed to charge various types of batteries like lithium-ion, lead acid, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal-hydride batteries. 

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